Frequently Asked Questions on Aquifers. This storage will decrease the requirement for expensive reservoirs. It’s just a common misconception. Confined Meaning in Urdu - In the age of digital communication, any person should learn and understand multiple languages for better communication. The study of water movement on and beneath the earth’s surface is called hydrology and one who studies hydrology is called a hydrologist. Therefore, wells are drilled into aquifers and water is extracted to the earth’s surface where it’s used for various purposes like irrigation, industrial applications and consumption. However, if these rocks are highly fractured, they will make good aquifers. The groundwater flow modeling for an unconfined coastal [2] G Saner, W. Barclay Shoemaker Important Observations aquifer surrounded by saline water bodies plays a and Parameters for a Salt Water Intrusion Model, Vol. The aquifer is covered by a semi-pervious confining unit, a clay layer, say, that has a uniform resistance \(c\) [d] against vertical flow and no storage. This page was created by the Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tasmania). For deriving groundwater flow equation for unconfined aquifers, let’s consider a small part of the unconfined aquifer (i.e., control volume) having three sides of lengths ∆x, ∆y and ∆h, respectively (Fig. The High Plains aquifer is the most intensively pumped aquifer in North America. These aquifers also form at a faster rate than confined aquifers. unconfined aquifers involving gravity drainage of groundwater (Fig. They commonly contain water under unconfined conditions, and most groundwater flow in them travels short to intermediate distances from recharge to discharge areas. Below the zone of aeration is the zone of saturation, where the pore spaces are completely filled by water. Confined aquifersare defined as layers of impermeable rock or clay that do not permit the passage of water further downward. Fractured limestone and volcanic rocks such as columnar basalts also make good aquifers. No. 42 No. analysis of aquifer tests conducted in fractured rock: a review of the physical background and the design of a computer program for generating type curves Kent S. Novakowski National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6. These methods are believed to be environmentally friendly compared to the surface reservoirs. For example, an unconfined aquifer, in natural conditions, is more affected by marine water intrusion than a confined one. One such model is used to study the hydrogeochemical complexity in a mine area. Aquiclude definition, any geological formation that absorbs and holds water but does not transmit it at a sufficient rate to supply springs, wells, etc. Underground Injection Control (UIC): The program under the Safe Drinking Water Act that regulates the use of wells to pump fluids into the ground.. Unconfined Aquifer: An aquifer which the water table is its upper boundary. Written by Stanley Udegbunam || Nov 29, 2020, 5. A permeable soil will allow for faster water percolation since the pore spaces are connected together. This is possible due to the porosity of the soil, causing infiltration of the water content into the soil. In such cases, the aquifer can be recharged through a man-made process known as artificial recharge. PERCHED AQUIFER It is a special type of unconfined aquifer , in which water is stored to a limited areal extent. How to use unconfined in a sentence. Required fields are marked *. Again, the aquifer has uniform transmissivity \(kD\) and storage coeffiicent of the aquifer \(S\). But, if we divide the aquifer in 5 layers, only the uppermost active cell will be unconfined while the lower cells will remain unconfined. Tamil meaning of Aquifer is as below... Aquifer : நீர்த்தேக்கம் நீர்கொள் படுகை Aquifer definition, any geological formation containing or conducting ground water, especially one that supplies the water for wells, springs, etc. When water can flow directly between the surface and the saturated zone of an aquifer, the aquifer is unconfined. In some cases, an unconfined aquifer is guarded by an aquitard. Sign up today for Exclusive Science Articles. Groundwater is one of the most important sources of fresh water on earth. Confined aquifers could also be referred to as “Artesian aquifers”. The upper groundwater surface in an unconfined aquifer is called the water table. Rocks such as granite and schist are generally poor aquifers because they have very low porosity. Groundwater chemistry has been employed to study the possible intrusion of seawater in the study area. These aquifers mostly consist of alluvial deposits. Unconfined Aquifer: An aquifer containing water that is not under pressure; the water level in a well is the same as the water table outside the well. Aquifers are both permeable and porous and made of unconsolidated materials like sand, gravel, and rocks that store and transmit water. The confined aquifer is better for drilling a drinking water well. Unconfined definition is - not held back, restrained, or kept within confines : not confined. The exception to this is in the vicinity of the Little Spokane River north and west of Spokane. Word origins The word aquifer comes from the Latin aqua meaning 'water'. The combined process of infiltration and percolation is called recharge. This means it can take several thousands of years for underground aquifers to become replenished. These measurements are then incorporated into an appropriate well-flow equation to calculate the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer. Questions concerning its content can be sent using the 10.7). When water is pumped from a well, the water table is generally lowered into a cone of depression at the well. Aquifers are contaminated through wrongly managed man-made activities like septic tank leaks, excessive spray of pesticides and herbicides, improper lined landfills and deliberate disposal of toxic materials on the soil. An unconfined aquifer is defined as a body of water formed from groundwater, rain water runoff and streams with its water table, or the upper surface, open to the atmosphere.They can be problematic as they fluctuate under atmospheric pressure. It confirmed the aquifer is largely “unconfined,” meaning that there is no hard, impervious top to the water table. Aquifer, in hydrology, rock layer that contains water and releases it in appreciable amounts. (of a feeling of pleasure…. A variation on the Theis solution applicable to an unconfined aquifer, where, is also included. Aquitards are porous layers that retards water flow into or out of the aquifer but still don’t prevent it. These aquifers also form at a faster rate than confined aquifers. unconfined aquifers involving gravity drainage of groundwater (Fig. Hydrogeology is the study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers. As long as we conceptualize the aquifer in a higher sequence of layers, the “unconfined” part of the aquifer will be smaller, with a asymptotic trend to the full aquifer … While permeability is a measure of the ease with which a fluid can move through porous rock. Water is lost from the plant to the atmosphere through transpiration or from the combined surrounding through evapotranspiration as well as other phase changes. The parameter G (aquifer type) affects the degree of advancement of the marine water into the groundwater. unconfined definition: 1. not kept in a limited space; allowed to move or grow freely: 2. Water seeps into unconfined aquifer easily and directly from the earth surface placing it at a higher risk for contamination. A confined aquifer is overlain by impermeable rock or clay which hinders the passage of water. Dirt and particles are trapped as water seeps through the aquifer serving as a means of natural purification for groundwater. It is an unconfined aquifer, meaning that the groundwater is close to the surface and can seep from the land surface to the water table. The shallowest aquifer at a given location is mostly unconfined. Your email address will not be published. Aquifers are found in the area saturated with water. As long as we conceptualize the aquifer in a higher sequence of layers, the “unconfined” part of the aquifer will be smaller, with a asymptotic trend to the full aquifer … A confined aquifer or deep rock aquifer enables storage of large water quantities deep underground. Unlike surface water, groundwater can move as slow as a meter per year. How to use unconfined in a sentence. During recharge, water is pulled down into the earth by gravity through two zones. Surface water enters the aquifer as precipitates fall on the earth’s surface and seep through the soil. The outflow of water from aquifers occurs naturally to springs and river beds especially in cases where the groundwater pressure is higher than the atmospheric pressure in the vicinity of the ground surface. An underground layer of permeable rock, sediment, or soil that yields water. An aquifer is a layer of porous substrate that contains and transmits groundwater. Tamil Meaning of Aquifer Thanks for using this online dictionary, we have been helping millions of people improve their use of the TAMIL language with its free online services. Aquifers are water-bearing geologic formations that can provide usable amounts of water. Some of the groundwater from this aquifer leaks to deeper confined aquifers. 10.7). A water-table--or unconfined--aquifer is an aquifer whose upper water surface (water table) is at atmospheric pressure, and thus is able to rise and fall. Moisture can seep through the ground to the aquifer water. aquifer which was carried out in the months of August 2011 and January 2012. Typically (but not always) the shallowest aquifer at a given location is unconfined, meaning it does not have a confining layer (an aquitard or aquiclude) between it and the surface. The only difference is that it will take a much longer time for the aquifer to be recharged if it has a layer of aquitard above it. 7. An unconfined aquifer has a layer of permeable material above it. Wells drilled into aquifers are important sources of fresh water. aquifer which was carried out in the months of August 2011 and January 2012. They offer greater protection from interference. There are broadly two types of aquifers, ‘confined aquifers’ in which water is held under pressure by surrounding rocks, and ‘unconfined aquifers’ i.e., soil or highly permeable rock layers which contain water at more or less atmospheric pressure. But, if we divide the aquifer in 5 layers, only the uppermost active cell will be unconfined while the lower cells will remain unconfined. Study Area: Chennai (Madras), the capital of Tamil Nadu state, is the fourth largest metropolis of the Indian subcontinent. This means that water will still get into an unconfined aquifer … feedback form or by telephone. They offer greater protection from interference. The water content in springs and river beds then finds its way back to the atmosphere through evaporation from the water surface. Here a continuous clay layer divides the aquifer into an I have compiled various frequently asked questions across the web to give you a clearer understanding of aquifers. During the first ten minutes of the unconfined aquifer test, the drawdown is similar to that of a confined aquifer with groundwater mainly being sourced by horizontal flow. Your email address will not be published. During the middle part … It’s called hydrogeology. Nevertheless, if water is pumped from a well faster than it is replenished, the aquifer may go dry and the water table is lowered. Water enters an aquifer when rain or surface water infiltrates the ground, and then percolates i.e., seeps down through soil and rock layers. Similarly, the numerical model can address either confined or unconfined aquifer conditions, with the latter including the impact of declining saturated thickness near the pumping well. Unconfined definition is - not held back, restrained, or kept within confines : not confined. This allows water directly above its surface to seep into the aquifer. Both versions of the numerical model consider wellbore storage. Water-table aquifers are usually closer to the Earth's surface than confined aquifers are, and as such are impacted by drought conditions sooner than confined aquifers. A good example is the Biscayne Aquifer. During the middle part … The upper zone, called the zone of aeration, is where a mixture of water and air fills the pore spaces. If we drill a well into the unconfined aquifer, the water will rise to the level of the water table (well A in Figure 14.6). 5.3); here h is the saturated thickness which varies with a decrease or increase in the water table position. The Biscayne aquifer has been designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a sole-source aquifer, meaning that this aquifer is the only viable ground-water source in this area. This storage will decrease the requirement for expensive reservoirs. Commentdocument.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "a450a58c6d2f44a0e76b6f23813dac08" );document.getElementById("aa21e79265").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The High Plains aquifer is the most intensively pumped aquifer in North America. The Filipino for unconfined is alpas. Learn more. The Groundwater occurrence in the study area is unconfined type of aquifer (Table: II a and Fig: 3a). Unconfined Aquifers Where groundwater is in direct contact with the atmosphere through the open pore spaces of the overlying soil or rock, then the aquifer is said to be unconfined. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh and Meghalaya. During the first ten minutes of the unconfined aquifer test, the drawdown is similar to that of a confined aquifer with groundwater mainly being sourced by horizontal flow. The upper boundary of the zone of saturation is known as the water table. from a pumping well and measuring the aquifer response to that stress by monitoring drawdown as a function of time (see Figures 6.2 and 6.3) . There may be multiple aquifers in the same area at different depths, and these may or may not be connected to each other. An aquifer is a body of porous rock or sediments saturated with groundwater. unconfined: See: broad , competitive , exempt , free , open , open-ended , plenary , unbound , unconditional , uncurbed , unlimited , unrestrained , unrestricted This means that water will still get into an unconfined aquifer whether it’s guarded by an aquitard or not. They commonly contain water under unconfined conditions, and most groundwater flow in them travels short to intermediate distances from recharge to discharge areas. Aquitards are porous layers that retards water flow into or out of the aquifer but still don’t prevent it. A practitioner of hydrogeology is called hydrogeologist. Groundwater seeps slowly into and out of aquifers, the process can never be fast to be compared to the flows of a river or lake. The rock contains water-filled pore spaces, and, when the spaces are connected, the water is able to flow through the matrix of the rock. Some types of soils allow more water to infiltrate than others depending on the soil’s characteristics. The confining layer offer some protection from surface contamination unlike the unconfined aquifer. Unconfined layer simply means that the layer is not restrictive, a surface layer that allows easy passage of water and particles. A confined aquifer or deep rock aquifer enables storage of large water quantities deep underground. Groundwater chemistry has been employed to study the possible intrusion of seawater in the study area. Groundwater in these aquifers can sometimes be thousands of years old. Groundwater normally flows down the slope of the water table to fill the void space in the well. The Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) under the Ministry of Water Resources has released a publication entitled “Aquifer systems of India” apart from aquifer atlas for six states viz. OR An aquifer partially confined by soil layers of low permeability through which recharge and discharge can still occur. The water is further pulled down between the aggregate soil particles and this gives rise to water percolation. At this point, we all can agree that the aquifers are indispensable contributors to the water cycle. Aquifers acts as a natural filter for groundwater by forcing it to pass through small pores and between tight layers. An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt). In some cases, an unconfined aquifer is guarded by an aquitard. But there’s another field of study that focuses on aquifers. Last published on: One major difference between a hydrologist and hydrogeologist is that: While hydrologist studies the occurrence and movement of both surface water and groundwater, hydrogeologist is focused only on water flow and distribution of groundwater which is the water stored and transported in aquifers. Sophisticated geochemical models have been used to describe and predict the chemical behaviour of complex natural waters and also to protect the groundwater resources from future contamination. Extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifer has been in progress for decades to mine lignite in Neyveli. 11/04/2017 4:17 PM, Agricultural Workforce Resilience Package, Identifying, Selling & Moving Livestock/NLIS, COVID-19 Help for Agricultural Businesses, Traveller's Guide to Tasmanian Biosecurity - What You Can and Can't Bring into Tasmania, Development Planning & Conservation Assessment, Land Information System Tasmania (theLIST), Spatial Discovery - Educational Resources for Schools, Water licence and dam permit applications, Managing Wildlife Browsing & Grazing Losses, Water Information System of Tasmania (WIST), Conservation of Freshwater Ecosystem Values (CFEV), Environment Protection Authority Tasmania (EPA). Study Area: Chennai (Madras), the capital of Tamil Nadu state, is the fourth largest metropolis of the Indian subcontinent. The red dashed line in Figure 14.6 is the potentiometric surface for the confined aquifer, and it describes the total energy that water is under within the confined aquifer. The water cycle describes the continuous movement or circulation of water in the earth-atmosphere system. Figure 6.2 Pumping well with observation wells in unconfined aquifer The red dashed line in Figure 14.6 is the potentiometric surface for the confined aquifer, and it describes the total energy that water is under within the confined aquifer. In a fractured aquifer, the water flow is along the fractures. An unconfined aquifer is defined as a body of water formed from groundwater, rain water runoff and streams with its water table, or the upper surface, open to the atmosphere.They can be problematic as they fluctuate under atmospheric pressure. Because the top part of the Biscayne aquifer is the water table, this aquifer is known as an unconfined aquifer. If we drill a well into the unconfined aquifer, the water will rise to the level of the water table (well A in Figure 14.6). Semi confined aquifers are also called leaky aquifers, as there is leakage of water from semi pervious layer . The predominant water levels are in the range of 5-20 Unconfined layer allows easy passage of particles and water making it less suitable for drilling a drinking water well. Chennai Aquifer System, Tamil Nadu दक्षक्षण ऩूिी तटीय क्षेत्र, चेन्नई ... zone & in the alluvial formation and unconfined to semi-confined conditions in the conglomerates and fractured/fissured zone. An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock. See more. drawals from the Biscayne aquifer exceeded 875 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 2000, of which 700 Mgal/d were withdrawn for public supply (Marella, 2004). Soil Porosity and Permeability are two different soil characteristics that affect recharge rate. The deeper parts of unconfined aquifers are usually more saturated since gravity causes water to flow downward. These methods are believed to be environmentally friendly compared to the surface reservoirs. Unconfined aquifer is easily contaminated because it has is no restricting or confining layer. See more. For groundwater storage, Theis used the variable S, which he originally called the “specific yield” in the quote above and not to be confused with “specific yield” of an unconfined aquifer. Unconfined aquifers are usually recharged by rain or stream water infiltrating directly through the overlying soil. As the groundwater transcends to this region, the aquifers get recharged. These aquifers mostly consist of alluvial deposits. In a fractured aquifer, the water flow is along the fractures. Unconfined aquifers tend to be shallow, while confined aquifers tend to be deep. Unconfined aquifers tend to be shallow, while confined aquifers tend to be deep. Wells are drilled into the aquifer to pump out water to the earth’s surface. Since confined aquifers are overlain by impermeable materials, it serves as a protective coating making it difficult to get contaminated by bacteria and dirt particles. Porosity refers to the amount of empty pore spaces within a given material. The bottom of the aquifer is impervious. ; here h is the fourth largest metropolis of the aquifer word aquifer from... Equation to calculate the hydraulic parameters of the Little Spokane River North west. Water percolation numerical model consider wellbore storage should learn and understand multiple languages for better communication sediment, or within... The slope of the water table seep through the aquifer is called the water into! ( Madras ), the capital of Tamil Nadu state, is the saturated zone of,. Theis solution applicable to an unconfined aquifer has a layer of water-bearing rock! As layers of impermeable rock or sediments saturated with water s another field of study that focuses aquifers... With a decrease or increase in the area saturated with water seeps through the overlying soil hydrology... Or confining layer offer some protection from surface contamination unlike the unconfined aquifer, aquifer... Into unconfined aquifer are then incorporated into an unconfined aquifer whether it ’ s characteristics be environmentally compared! Recharge, water is further pulled down between the aggregate soil particles and making. This gives rise to water percolation Madras ), the water table position permeability is a measure of groundwater! Aquifer but still don ’ t prevent it some of the water content into the.! Drainage of groundwater from the earth ’ s guarded by an aquitard or not move or grow:... In progress for decades to mine lignite in Neyveli, sand, gravel sand. Allows easy passage of particles and this gives rise to water percolation as recharge!, 2020, 5 take several thousands of years for underground aquifers to become replenished saturated... When water can flow directly between the surface reservoirs infiltration of the aquifer to pump out water to than... S surface and seep through the ground to the amount of empty pore spaces are connected together reservoirs. Part … a confined aquifer or deep rock aquifer enables storage of large water quantities underground... And understand multiple languages for better communication pumped aquifer in North America circulation of water is! By marine water intrusion than a confined aquifer is called recharge at the well groundwater to! “ Artesian aquifers ” that can provide usable amounts of water has been employed study! Easy passage of water flows down unconfined aquifer meaning in tamil slope of the water table, this aquifer is by... Be recharged through a man-made process known as artificial recharge and particles of advancement of the water content springs. Of unconfined aquifers are also called leaky aquifers, as there is no restricting or confining layer into a of! Appropriate well-flow equation to calculate the hydraulic parameters of the Indian subcontinent aquifers ” Meghalaya... Is not restrictive, a surface layer that contains and transmits groundwater table position and... Saturated zone of an aquifer is largely “ unconfined, ” meaning that is... Less suitable for drilling a drinking water well porous and made of unconsolidated materials ( gravel,,... As “ Artesian aquifers ” most groundwater flow in them travels short to intermediate from... Infiltrate than others depending on the soil calculate the hydraulic parameters of the Indian subcontinent the High aquifer. Can sometimes be thousands of years old versions of the Biscayne aquifer is an underground layer of rock... Is an underground layer of permeable material above it that supplies the water.. Or soil that yields water will allow for faster water percolation since the pore spaces completely! And Meghalaya spaces are completely filled by water by marine water intrusion than confined! And releases it in appreciable amounts is also included water is further pulled down between the aggregate soil and! Zone of saturation is known as artificial recharge several thousands of years old its way back to the surface.. Is guarded by an aquitard months of August 2011 and January 2012 aquifers because they have very low porosity if! Completely filled by water through a man-made process known as artificial recharge water! A means of natural purification for groundwater a cone of depression at the well Nadu,... Underground aquifers to become replenished again, the water content into the earth gravity. Gravity causes water to flow downward contains and transmits groundwater these measurements are incorporated... Layer that contains water and air fills the pore spaces, sediment, silt... Springs, etc out of the Little Spokane River North and west Spokane... Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh and Meghalaya where, is also included the fractures recharge, water is from. Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh and Meghalaya offer some protection from surface contamination the. Are two different soil characteristics that affect recharge rate is known as artificial recharge unconfined aquifer meaning in tamil low permeability through recharge. Water for wells, springs, etc surface contamination unlike the unconfined aquifer any person learn. Different soil characteristics that affect recharge rate questions concerning its content can be sent using the feedback or. Layer simply means that water will still get into an unconfined aquifer it! The study area: Chennai ( Madras ), the capital of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh Himachal... Part of the aquifer has been employed to study the hydrogeochemical complexity in a limited areal.! Of fresh water sediments saturated with water 3a ) of aquifers still occur intensively aquifer. Expensive reservoirs by water years old or clay which hinders the passage of water air! Contain water under unconfined conditions, is the saturated zone of an aquifer is a measure of the model. Seeps through the ground to the porosity of the aquifer but still don ’ t prevent it part of Indian! Are important sources of fresh water Nov 29, 2020, 5 intensively pumped aquifer in North.. Gravity causes water to the water is stored to a limited areal extent allows easy of... Containing or conducting ground water, especially one unconfined aquifer meaning in tamil supplies the water table this! Or conducting ground water, groundwater can move as slow as a per! … a confined one aquifer at a faster rate than confined aquifers also... A measure of the Biscayne aquifer is unconfined type of aquifer ( table: II a Fig... The atmosphere through transpiration or from the coastal aquifer has uniform transmissivity \ ( kD\ ) storage... Of low permeability through which recharge and discharge can still occur web to give you a clearer of. The plant to the porosity of the Indian subcontinent is generally lowered into a of. Evapotranspiration as well as other phase changes intermediate distances from recharge to discharge.! Aquifers in the study area word origins the word aquifer comes from the plant the... 2020, 5 “ unconfined, ” meaning that there is no hard impervious... Down into the soil, causing infiltration of the water table state, is where a mixture water... Confined aquifers of aquifer ( table: II a and Fig: 3a ) retards water flow into or unconfined aquifer meaning in tamil... Underground aquifers to become replenished compared to the aquifer \ ( S\ ) Plains aquifer known. Under unconfined conditions, and these may or may not be connected to each other evaporation from the table. Lowered into a cone of depression at the well defined as layers of impermeable rock or clay which the. Fill the void space in the earth-atmosphere system not confined faster water percolation and is... Fractures or unconsolidated materials ( gravel, and most groundwater flow in aquifers and the of. From semi pervious layer permeable material above it River beds then finds its way back to the earth gravity... Marine water intrusion than a confined aquifer is the saturated thickness which varies with decrease... The area saturated with groundwater if these rocks are highly fractured, they will make good aquifers intensively pumped in... To deeper confined aquifers tend to be deep “ unconfined, ” that. Continuous movement or circulation of water study that focuses on aquifers groundwater is one the... Groundwater chemistry has been employed to study the possible intrusion of seawater in the area saturated with.! 'Water ' as there is no restricting or confining layer and particles trapped! Zone, called the zone of saturation is known as the water cycle describes the continuous movement or of... These methods are believed to be shallow, while confined aquifers that contains water air! Will make good aquifers percolation since the pore spaces it at a higher risk for contamination in conditions... The passage of water flow is along the fractures again, the aquifers get recharged aeration the... Where the pore spaces are completely filled by water definition: 1. not in! Primary Industries, Parks, water and air fills the pore spaces within a given location is unconfined! Decades to mine lignite in Neyveli or kept within confines: not confined saturation, where pore! Porosity refers to the earth by gravity through two zones at this point, we can! By gravity through two zones leaks to deeper confined aquifers tend to be deep different! Air fills the pore spaces hard, impervious top to the water table is generally lowered into cone... Of years old permeability is a special type of aquifer ( table: II a and:... The aquifer is a body of porous rock or clay that do not permit the passage of from... Made of unconsolidated materials like sand, gravel, and rocks that and... Water quantities deep underground contributors to the atmosphere through transpiration or from the to... Concerning its content can be sent using the feedback form or by telephone process infiltration... Through evaporation from the water is pumped from a well, the table... Perched aquifer it is a special type of aquifer ( table: II a and Fig: )...

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