Why, according to Lendon, did the First Peloponnesian War (460-445 BC) break out? Furthermore, Ephorus’ use of information drawn from ancient comedy was subtler than it is usually considered to be. Much of Athens' strength was to be found in its ability to draw upon vast commercial wealth and to import needed goods from great distances. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? Sparta’s society was a 400 year old stratified, militaristic system that bread men for war. If we look at F 196, the fragment on the causes of the Peloponnesian War, we can perhaps understand why. ὡς δὲ διὰ Φειδίου προσέπταισε τῷ δήμῳ, φοβηθεὶς τὸ δικαστήριον μέλλοντα τὸν πόλεμον καὶ ὑποτυφόμενον ἐξέκαυσεν, ἐλπίζων διασκεδάσειν τὰ ἐγκλήματα καὶ ταπεινώσειν τὸν φθόνον, ἐν πράγμασι μεγάλοις καὶ κινδύνοις τῆς πόλεως ἐκείνῳ μόνῳ διὰ τὸ ἀξίωμα καὶ τὴν δύναμιν ἀναθείσης ἑαυτήν. It was fought in 5th century BC between the democratic Athens and the Peloponnesian League led by oligarchic Sparta.Lasting for more than a quarter of a century, it marked the end of the golden age of Greece. Siege. Among the culprits behind the war of 431 BCE, Pericles was certainly predominant. Soon thereafter the other major city-states of Greece were drawn into the conflict. The Athenians and Peloponnesians began the war by breaking the Thirty Years Peace made after the conquest of Euboia. Curiously enough, Ephorus—the historian who has been universally credited as having made History the servant of Rhetoric—gives us one of the clearest statements in historiography on the dramatic damages that can result when rhetorical persuasiveness and demagogy enter into politics. Causes Of The Pelopenesian War 1302 Words | 6 Pages . The main reasons proposed are: Sparta was jealous of other powers and desired more power for itself. The Archidamian War. just create an account. The presence of this last detail no longer takes us by surprise. Athens became the natural leader of the Delian League since it had the largest navy with which to combat Persian advances. This war shifted power from Athens to Sparta, making Sparta the most powerful city-state in the region. The first is a problem of historical contingency and properly concerns the origin of the Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE. Pericles dies (Hale, 324). The city-states of Greece governed themselves and were highly competitive with one another when it came to trade, warfare, cultural influence, politics, and even sporting competitions. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) (My translation), The debate on the Megarian Decree that had been going on in Athens since Sparta’s ultimatum clearly marks the confluence of these two streams; at this convergence, the war was decided, and it was decided by rhetoric. Seeing through … Most of our knowledge of the causes and the events of this long and bloody war depends on the history written by the Athenian Thucydides (c. 460–400 B.C.). Sparta was unhappy at no longer having all the military glory. Meier Marx, the very first editor of Ephorus’ fragments in 1815, conjectured that Ephorus might very well have included in his history as a vulgate tradition the information about Pericles’ personal affairs that we find in Diodorus. The third cause of the Peloponnesian War was likely due to Sparta's rebellion. During this period of political stability, democracy flourished in Athens under a revered leader named Pericles. By insight I mean control of the facts from the distant past, knowledge of the physis of man and especially, of the physis of power. The hatred between the two Athens and Sparta made it possible for virtually any reason to cause a war, and the war between the two opposite sides did break out, which is known as the Peloponnesian War. 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We understand that Ephorus not only sheds light on Pericles’ responsibilities for the war by pointing out the problematic impact of demagogy on internal politics, but also that he did not ignore the political situation outside Athens, the aetiological stream in Ephorus’ original account that Diodorus chose not to develop. 401 lessons Following his commentary, he expresses his interpretation of how this war reflects humanity and how even though time changes these are truths that humans can’t escape. And since in the case of Pheidias he had come into collision with the people, he feared a jury in his own case, and so kindled into flame the threatening and smouldering war, hoping thereby to dissipate the charges made against him and allay the people’s jealousy, inasmuch as when great undertakings were on foot, and great perils threatened, the city entrusted herself to him and to him alone, by reason of his worth and power. It is called the Peloponnesian League because many of the city-states were located on the Peloponnesus. Asked by Wiki User. It’s no wonder then the war began again, this time with the aim of deciding, once and for all, who ruled the Grecian world. Athens and Sparta were both able to rely upon a number of allied city-states, which meant that the war spread throughout Greece. Social conflict within Epidamnus had been brewing for years and this finally led to a democratic faction rising within the broader population. Giovanni Parmeggiani, The Causes of the Peloponnesian War: Ephorus, Thucydides and Their Critics, 7. What did Thucydides believe about Sparta in relation to Athens which caused the Peloponnesian war? Peloponnesian War reshaped the ancient Greek world. With many independent city-states competing for resources and cultural influence, war was always a danger. Following Sparta's victory in the war, Greece became weakened, which allowed for the rise to power of the Kingdom of Macedon and later, Alexander the Great. The immediate cause of the Peloponnesian War was Corinthian opportunism. As far as short term causes, most historians agree that the attack on a Theban envoy made by the citizens of Plataea was what finally drove these two city-states to war. The Peloponnesian War is the name given to the long series of conflicts between Athens and Sparta that lasted from 431 until 404 BC. For full treatment, see Ancient Greek civilization: The Peloponnesian War. The Peloponnesian War was a war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta—the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.). Here we find, together with the two quotations from Aristophanes (, “One might say Persuasion rested on his [Pericles’] lips; such charm he’d bring, and alone of all the speakers in his list’ners left his sting.” (Translation by C. H. Oldfather). The appeal was backed by Megara, nearly ruined by Pericles' economic boycott, and by Aegina a reluctant member of the Athenian Empire. Truce. 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Much of what we know about the Peloponnesian War comes to us from the Greek historian Thucydides who lived through the war and composed a history of the conflict. While Thucydides seemed quite certain that he had settled the question of the cause of the Peloponnesian War for all time, historians continue to debate the origins of the war. World War II broke out in 1939 because Germany invaded Poland, but there is a long background leading up to the conflict.. Sparta headed a league of city-states to stand up to the power of the Delian League. The Cause of the Peloponnesian War. Download as PDF Printable version. “Aristofane—Eupoli e Diodoro. In Thucydides’ view, if there had been no Corcyra or Potidaea, we would not have had the Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE. Third, some Athenian settlers began to move into the lands of … We will send you an email with a link that you may use to reset your password. [1] Both powers had demonstrated a reluctance for head-on war over matters peripheral to their respective spheres of influence. 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Sparta eventually decided to join the war, using as its reason the fact that they wanted to end Athens domination of Greece and act as a liberator for all of the Greek people. The Peloponnesian War was a war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta—the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.). This view is deeply historical and has nothing to do with the supposed fiction or exaggerations on the part of the Athenian comedy or the pamphletistic tradition. 462 BCE) to have been a negative turning point in the fifth century. This is the problem for which the aitiai are invoked. However, if we look down and combine all the facts and the evidence, the reasons will be exposed. Spartan fear of Athenian power. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. | 27 First Peloponnesian War. The other city-states of Greece paid tribute to Athens to help support the military coalition. What caused the Peloponnesian War to break out? Here we touch upon a historical situation to which Ephorus was quite sensitive, and in which he contextualized Pericles’ affairs—quite a different circumstance from what we see in comedy or pamphlets. “The Peloponnesian War: Sources Other than Thucydides.” In, Matthiessen, C. 1857-1860. For much of this war Athens controlled Boeotia, but this domination ended after the Athenians were defeated at … This solution actually has a longer history than might appear at first sight. We can surmise from the reference in F 196 to the removal of the Delian League’s treasure that Ephorus considered the collapse of the Panhellenic alliance between Athens and Sparta (ca. After this battle, Rahe argues that the Pelopenesian War was effectively over and that Sparta had won. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you The formation of the Delian League, or Athenian League, in 478 B.C. Epidamnus. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal courses that prepare you to earn Naturally, we have the option of trusting Thucydides’ mastery and thus gratefully accepting his lesson about the causes of the war and its historical necessity. 430 BC- Second year of the Peloponnesian War. The Peloponnesian War is the name given to the long series of conflicts between Athens and Sparta that lasted from 431 until 404 BC. This disagreement led to friction and eventually outright war. Everyone knows how the Trojan War ended: with a bunch of guys piling out of a giant horse. Pericles dies (Hale, 324). Classical Greek civilization did not have a central government or ruling empire but was instead made up of small, independent communities called city-states. 0 0 1. 8,000 talents—to Athens and gave it to Pericles to administer. Thucydides writes The Peloponnesian War not just to record a war that will be known to all time but also to understand human beings. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 study In the section of F 196 that precedes Aristophanes’ and Eupolis’ quotations, Diodorus relates—extensively and in indirect form—Pericles’ oration on the advantages of not abrogating the Megarian Decree (12.39.5–40.5). It will suffice to recall Ephorus F 207 on Lysander’s revolutionary logos, περὶ τῆς πολιτείας, which was “written,” as we read in the fragment, “in so persuasive a way.”. Disease that usually caused people to die. You can test out of the the Athenians and Lacedaemonians] broke the peace, I have written first the aitiai and the differences, so that no one should ever have to enquire into the origin of so great a war for the Greeks.” (Thucydides 1.23.5, translation by T. How did the war actually break out? flashcard sets, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Thucydides mentiones superficial causes of the war, but what is the truest cause? The city that holds the highest responsibility out of Corinth, Sparta and Athens for the Peloponnesian War is Sparta. 460 BC - 445 BC Build-up: Prior to the Greco-Persian Wars, the hegemony of Sparta over the Greek mainland was largely uncontested. What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? The war was followed by the Thirty Year’s Peace although in reality hostilities never fully ceased and broke out into full war once again from 431 BCE. Answer. Ephorus seems to find the roots of the Peloponnesian War in this historical context. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons What caused Athens to clash with Sparta? As we shall see, it seems possible to reach, through Diodorus, a different conclusion about Ephorus’ view of the causes of the Peloponnesian War. The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. But they began to cede that assumed leadership early. An additional reason for breaking the truce was the Megarian decree that may have been the final spark that ignited this great holocaust of war. This consideration leads us to understand a second underlying message: Pericles wanted the war, and he succeeded in pursuing it because of pre-existing tension between Athens and Sparta. Indeed, the nearly fifty years of Greek history that preceded the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War had been marked by the development of Athens as a major power in the Mediterranean world. The Cause of the Break Out of World War I. why the First World War broke out in 1914, explaining why the long term causes may have had some part in it as well as the short term causes and their role in the whole ordeal. Thucydides an Athenian aristocrat and veteran of the Peloponnesian War documented the war from the beginning of the conflict in 431 BC to its conclusion in 404 BC. Nino Luraghi, Ephorus in Context: The Return of the Heraclidae and Fourth-century Peloponnesian Politics, 8. One major cause of the Peloponnesian war was that the Spartans were fearful of the Athenians power, growth, and wealth. Christopher Tuplin, The Sick Man of Asia? Create an account to start this course today. However, some critics have noted that Thucydides does not inquire into important events that occurred in the years immediately before the war, {117|118} such as the Megarian Decree. King Philip II of Macedonian was able to create an empire across much of the region, and his heir, Alexander the Great, would later use Greece and the Macedonian Empire as a launching point for an invasion of Persia. Ephorus felt free to craft new historical concepts by drawing on comedy’s most evocative images. In other words, he distinguishes between two sets of causes because there are two different kinds of problems to solve. Far from being a corrupter of the science of history, Ephorus of Cyme proves to be a very competent historian in matters of aetiology. Visit the NY Regents Exam - Global History and Geography: Help and Review page to learn more. This conflict was called the Peloponnesian War. The causes of the Peloponnesian War. Secondly, the alliance known as the Delian League had brought the city-states of Greece into an uneasy military alliance that many members began to resent over time. Such a relationship, therefore, can only be revealed by a master of history and politics, whose insight is particularly canny. What has become known as The First Peloponnesian War (c. 460-446 BCE) was less intense than the second and fought mainly between Athens and Corinth with occasional intervention by Sparta. Already registered? What is the first phase of the Peloponnesian war called? How did Sparta win the Peloponnesian War? Thucydides is mistaken in his famous assertion that "[w]hat made war inevitable was the growth of Athenian power and the fear which this caused in Sparta". F 196 is a difficult text. Causes of the War There were three main reasons war broke out. Diodorus mentions Ephorus at the end of a long and seemingly lacunose account: αἰτίαι μὲν οὖν τοῦ Πελοποννησιακοῦ πολέμου τοιαῦταί, Scholars of the twentieth century generally agree that Diodorus’ account is only an. The Peloponnesian War, named after the Peloponnesus region of Greece, was a widespread conflict involving a number of battles on land and at sea. What happened during the Peloponnesian War? The Causes of the Peloponnesian War. John Marincola, Rethinking Isocrates and Historiography, 4. . The first is a problem of historical contingency and properly concerns the origin of the Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE. I think that we have come a long way from traditional views about Ephorus. 30 chapters | The primary causes were that Sparta feared of the growing power and influence of the Athenian Empire. The Plague of Athens (Ancient Greek: Λοιμὸς τῶν Ἀθηνῶν, Loimos tôn Athênôn) was an epidemic that devastated the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year (430 BC) of the Peloponnesian War when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. Ephorus did not express the same view as Thucydides about the Peloponnesian War; contrary to Thucydides, he believed that the war could have been avoided, and he investigated the issue of Pericles’ responsibility for the war, his desire for war for personal reasons, and his success through rhetoric and demagogy. , N. D. 1980 writes the Peloponnesian war ’ use of information drawn from Ancient was! 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