An actor of volcanic power – he was arguably the only tenor partner in whom Maria Callas found an equal match when he sang Jason to her Medea in Cherubini’s opera – Vickers’s art was founded on philosophical and religious beliefs; he withdrew from a production of Wagner’s Tannhäuser, citing the work’s blasphemy. In a career that lasted barely more than a decade, he gave exemplary performances of the lyric Mozart tenor roles: Belmonte in Die Entführung aus dem Serail, Ferrando in Così fan tutte and Don Ottavio in Don Giovanni. In the recording studio he was a populist, recording his favourite operetta arias and songs such as ‘Granada’ which endeared him to those that never set foot in an opera house. The celebrities on this list share on thing: They all perform regularly at the Vienna Opera House. What music! Read on to discover about the life and works of famous American singers. Pears' musical career started slowly. Pears and Britten were together for 40 years – they began the English Opera Group and the Aldeburgh Festival, and developed an unsurpassable recital partnership. It also features a 16-page booklet with everything you need to know about each tenor – nationality, short biography, best recording, trivia and more – in an appealing and witty design. By entering your details, you are agreeing to Classical Music terms and conditions and privacy policy. Although his acting in staged opera sometimes struck observers as phlegmatic or perfunctory, the technical adroitness and expressive subtlety of his singing swept all before it. It is all tied together and his diction is very good too. His career was closely associated with the composer Benjamin Britten, his personal and professional partner for nearly forty years. While his voice was not big enough to sing Calaf in Puccini’s Turandot in a … But lately, we've been inundated with the polished sheen of the "official" Irish Tenors.Here's a look at some other Irish tenors, artists from the '30s and '40s who paved the way for today's artists. In 2003, he recorded Mozart’s Idomeneo, aged 78. With his dramatic presence allied to a burnished bronze tone that could ride over any orchestra, Vickers became the tenor of choice in such roles at Bayreuth, Vienna, the Met and other leading houses. I don’t believe in all this pedantic arranging of things in order.’. His concert and Lieder repertoire were no less extensive and he left unsurpassed recordings of the tenor solos in Haydn’s Creation and Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis under Karajan and, above all, the tenor songs in Klemperer’s recording of Mahler’s Das Lied von der Erde, in which Wunderlich’s sappy, youthful timbre are allied to eloquent diction and freedom at the top of the voice. Which have displayed the greatest power, range, grace and flexibility? A byword for lyrical refinement, Kraus was a perennial connoisseur’s favourite in bel canto and French repertoire. Stevie Wonder, Robert Plant, Luther Vandross, Michael Jackson, If some hardcore opera buffs had doubts, the general public felt Pavarotti deserved the mantle of Gigli, Caruso, Tauber and Lanza as the greatest, most popular tenor. One of the Bolshoi’s star tenors of the mid-20th century, Lemeshev combined an extraordinary youthful-sounding voice – even late in his career – with a level of characterisation unmatched by most of his contemporaries. Mario del monaco4 . At Bayreuth he sang major tenor roles and was the Siegfried in Solti’s 1960s recording of the Ring for Decca. In the concert hall, Pears... José Plácido Domingo Embil (born 21 January 1941) is a Spanish opera singer, conductor and arts administrator. Plus, there’s the audience-wowing vocal bravado of those high Bs and Cs while, outside the opera house, tradition has long regarded suave and silky tenors as the voices of romance. He stayed in New York until 1932, when he refused a pay cut due to the Depression and returned to Italy. He achieved international success starting in the mid-1990s, his first role being Count Almaviva in “The Barber of Seville” by Rossini in Córdoba in June 1994. Caruso was a singing superstar, with a voice that was born to make recordings that would ravish the senses of an adoring public. In the early 2010s, he transitioned from the tenor repertory into almost exclusively baritone parts, most notably Simon Boccanegra. But even then, when one thinks of that role and the kind of voice and presence it requires, Domingo’s isn’t necessarily the first name to come to mind. Once he and Britten were established as a partnership, the composer wrote many concert and operatic works with Pears's voice in mind, and the singer created roles in more than ten operas by his partner. Famous Opera Singers At The Vienna Opera House. Sarah Brightman is an English classical crossover soprano singer, actress, songwriter and dancer with a big following… But he was also superb as Ferrando in Karl Böhm’s classic recording of Mozart’s Così fan tutte, and in the delights of Spanish zarzuela. The operatic scene since the mid 1960s is inconceivable without him, and the gigantic treasury of opera recordings will bear witness to future generations of his greatness. After a successful 1914 debut in La Gioconda, he was in demand throughout Italy and by 1920 had made it to the Met, where he inherited many of Caruso’s roles following the latter’s death the next year. This piece is often attributed to J.S. He scandalised New York after he was arrested for indecent assault at the New York Zoo, outside the monkey house. Björling’s beautiful tone and effortless technique contributed to his reputation as a paragon of the art of singing during an illustrious international career. My parents liked Britten’s music, and I was brought up learning and loving every detail of the refinement and wit Peter Pears brought to the Folk Songs, the heroism of his St Nicholas, above all the tortured otherworldliness of Peter Grimes. Sing on your interest and your voice will last.’. He began with the usual Italian operas, primarily Verdi and Puccini, but moved back in time, the earliest of his roles being in Rameau’s Hippolyte et Aricie. Sign in to manage your newsletter preferences. Amazon.com. Click here to subscribe to BBC Music Magazine, An interview with choreographer Matthew Bourne, 5 facts about composer Bernd Alois Zimmermann. In the words of US critic Max de Schauensee, ‘He could tell a story. He nevertheless continued to perform until shortly before his death in 1957. However, his qualities as a singer shine through in the recordings and in contemporary accounts: a dark, lustrous voice with a rich palette of thickly spread colours that enabled him to explore the psychological depths in the great Verdi and Puccini roles. They’re the ones who usually get to play the agile, athletic hero while the poor old bass gets cast as the big, brooding baddy. Panis angelicus for tenor, organ, harp, cello & bass; 13. During the course of this enormous career he has always looked for new roles to challenge him, and has recorded over a hundred, performing an impressive proportion of those on stage. For many aficionados, he lacked the depth of Domingo, but his common touch, his large-scale open-air concerts, including the legendary 1991 occasion before the Prince and Princess of Wales when he persuaded most of the crowd to furl their umbrellas despite rain, his adept mixture of great operatic arias with much-loved Neapolitan ballads and his relatively restrained acting earned him the love and admiration of large numbers of the public. Nicolai Harry Gustav Gedda Ustinov possessed an elegantly lyrical sound, enhanced by polished diction. His career was closely associated with the composer Benjamin Britten, his personal and professional partner for … In his own words: ‘Gott, welch’ dunkles Bier’ (‘What dark beer’) – Windgassen on making a rapid stage exit from Beethoven’s opera Fidelio, with a stomach upset. Also a well-known humanitarian, Luciano Pavarotti hosted annual charity concerts to raise money for various UN causes. Marvellous purity of tone and breathtaking virtuosity make his singing irresistible, coupled with good looks and delight in performance. Sergey Lemeshev and Ivan Kozlovsky, born only two years apart, divided their fans into rival groups of lemeshistki and kozlovityanki. Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for The Famous Tenors - The Three Tenors on AllMusic - 2004 Non Ti Scordar Di Me by Ernesto de Curtis shows the tenor’s famous ‘honeyed’ tones to great advantage. Four years later, he debuted at the Metropolitan Opera La Traviata in the role of Alfredo. You can unsubscribe at any time. Do you agree with their choices? Who Are the Three Tenors? And that’s the most beautiful moment, because the audience can feel what you’re really feeling.’. Sir Peter Pears will always be remembered for his lifelong partnership with Benjamin Britten, some of whose finest music he inspired. The Very Best of the Irish Tenors 1999 - 2002. Whether dramatically slaying dragons in Wagner, lyrically serenading princesses in Puccini, gracefully gliding in Schubert or even crooning for the swooning on TV, tenors capture the imagination like no other singer. We asked an expert panel to decide. Lists that rank the greatest works, composers, and musicians by instrument. He is no Don Giovanni or Otello, and the more glamour is applied to his presentation the further you get from what the composer wanted.’. His classic version of Donizetti’s ‘Una furtiva lagrima’ remains a lesson to any singer and an expressive tour de force, crowned by the perfectly judged, swoon-inducing diminuendo which was a Schipa trademark. His operatic career began with the role of first prisoner in Fidelio in 1959, but rapidly blossomed with work at the then East-Berlin Staatsoper, Vienna State Opera, Salzburg and Bayreuth Festivals. He made 20 films and 900 records which show an impeccable lyric tenor voice of remarkable sweetness, used with taste and imagination, though from the mid-1930s his voice deteriorated. He was found guilty of pinching a lady’s bottom, but claimed that a monkey had done it. Marcelo Álvarez — born February 27, 1962, an Argentine lyric tenor. World Famous Tenor sing Nessun Dorma Highlight!Please Enjoy!1 . It was his voice that inspired Britten to compose opera, and his spirituality and erudition that contributed so much to works like the Holy Sonnets of John Donne. About. He made his debut in 1913 singing Silvio in Pagliacci, but on hearing the young baritone sing a high C in Il trovatore an American colleague declared him a tenor ‘with the lid on.’ And it’s the caramel colours in Melchior’s lower register that make his voice so distinctive, together with the stamina to sing Wagner’s major tenor roles without tiring. On stage, he was stiff and plain: ‘I know I don’t look like Rudolph Valentino, but I have tried to learn to act through the voice.’ His mastery of breath and the colour of the words allowed him to portray hot-bloods Canio and Cavaradossi without the usual gulps and groans. He stole the show at the Last Night of the 2016 BBC Proms, inspiring the same rapture there as he has at opera houses worldwide. This most difficult tenor aria to date reaches an incredible high D, whereas other singers and tenors view the famous top C as the limit of the tenor’s range. His secrets were a warm, effortless technique, immaculate diction, noble bearing and an intelligence informing every aspect of his art. Opera was, of course, his main focus, but throughout his more than 250 recordings, mostly released as 78s by the Victor Talking Machine Co., he encompassed most musical genres from Verdi, Bizet and Puccini (his contemporary) to Neapolitan song and pop music, one of his best sellers was ‘Over There’, a jaunty song for the US army in World War I. Rather limited in range and dynamic breadth, even lacking a particularly attractive vocal timbre, he still possessed the greatest gift of all – the ability to make a singing line and project it to every corner of an enraptured hall. Enrico Caruso (1873- 1921) Enrico Caruso opens the list of the best tenors of the XX century based … This is a list of the singers, conductors, and dancers who have appeared in at least 100 performances at the Metropolitan Opera, last updated September 21, 2019.Performers are listed by the number of the performances they have appeared in as found at the Metropolitan Opera Archives. The former bank teller was swiftly engaged for Dobrowen’s classic Boris Godunov recording, and by 1953 it was snapped up by houses across Europe. But you know something? Prior to that, the adult Lanza had sung only two performances of an opera. Battle Hymn of the Republic, The ("Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory," words by Julia Ward Howe; music attributed to Steffe) 17. He has even sung at the Bayreuth Festival, the ultimate accolade. List features people like Francesco Albanese and Thomas Spencer-Wortley. The tenor is a type of male singing voice and is the highest male voice within the modal … Although famed for his Wagnerian roles, Windgassen made his debut in 1941 as Don Alvaro in La forza del destino. Consequently, he was booked for Sunday Night at the London Palladium, the gem of ITV’s weekend schedule. 2002 Ellis Island Among the big-name opera stars and lower-key Lieder recitalists, who are the best tenors ever to have graced the stage? Two remarkable Russian tenors came to dominate the Soviet stage in the 1930s and 1940s. Over the years his growing bulk and the developing imperfections in his voice hampered his opera appearances, and in 1992 he was booed at La Scala when, as Don Carlos, he cracked a note. In his own words: ‘Whenever an artist takes his eyes off the ultimate… from what I would call “the Eternal”, then he diminishes himself, and the quality of his art is thereby diminished.’. As an accomplished Lieder singer, he is well known for roles in operas that are certified box-office draws. And then you just communicate. The Three Tenors are made up of three of the world's most famous and beloved operatic tenors which include Jose Carreras, Placido Domingo, and Luciano Pavarotti. If power and stamina are the hallmarks of Melchior’s art, there is also delicacy in his phrasing and absolute sureness of tone which is never less than beautiful and always appropriately expressive. Even if the date he prefers is correct, he has preserved his voice in an extraordinarily energetic career for almost 50 years, having made his debut in 1959 in Mexico, where his family moved when he was eight. His art wasn’t just about Britten, of course – Klemperer’s St Matthew Passion recording, so unfashionable these days, is dominated (but never overwhelmed) by Pears’s Evangelist. The Lord's Prayer; 16. Pavarotti’s life could almost have been the plot of a Lanza film. Performing a great range of operas, he continues to perform due to his unusually long life. Tamino was the last role he sang on stage, ten years later, again with the Stuttgart ensemble, at the Edinburgh Festival barely a month before his fatal accident. “She moved effortlessly between nimble, fluttering coloratura and arching lyrical … Few tenors have made so much out of relatively little as Tito Schipa. Lisette Oropesa. His career was closely associated with the composer Benjamin Britten, his personal and professional partner for nearly forty years. But the recordings preserve a voice that has an effortless, easy-going flow even in the cramped confines of an early studio, with a rich and powerful low to middle register and highly charged top notes that seem completely attuned to the new, dramatic verismo style that had emerged at the end of the 19th century. It is Otello. Caruso’s voice had its flaws: he was never entirely comfortable at the very top of his range. For men, the ranges from highest to lowest are tenor, baritone or second tenor and bass. In 1952, Walter Legge auditioned a young Swedish tenor, and cabled his contacts, ‘Just heard the greatest Mozart singer in my life: his name is Nicolai Gedda’. He could paint pictures.’, In his own words: ‘I like to go jumping about in my life, as the whim takes me. The elegance of his style made him ideal in Donizetti and Bellini, and later on he specialised in Massenet, particularly the role of Werther. The lovely and lyrical sounds of a well-trained Irish tenor sound completely unique. Wolfgang Windgassen followed in his father’s footsteps, also a tenor and with whom he studied, working at the Stuttgart opera, first as a singer and from 1972, until his death two years later, as director. Born in the small Italian town of Recanati in 1890, Gigli began singing as a chorister before vocal training in Rome. “Bali Hai” South Pacific“Bali Hai” is a classical tenor song for females, the song is actually a show … Back in 2008 we asked an expert panel to vote for the singers they believed to be the greatest tenors of all time. Luciano Pavarotti (, also US: , Italian: [luˈtʃaːno pavaˈrɔtti]; 12 October 1935 – 6 September 2007) was an Italian operatic tenor who also crossed over into popular music, eventually becoming one of the most commercially successful tenors of all time. Quite apart from that, he was of course one of the Three Tenors, and has recorded Christmas albums and discs of popular Italian and Spanish songs. He has also sung a few contemporary operas, but only ones written in a fairly traditional idiom. He made numerous recordings of complete operas and individual arias, gaining worldwide fame for the quality of his tone, and eventually established himself as one of the finest tenors of the 20th century, achieving the honorific title "king of the high C's".As one of the Three Tenors who performed their first concert during the 1990 FIFA World Cup before a global audience, Pavarotti became well known for his televised concerts and media... Sir Peter Neville Luard Pears ( PEERZ; 22 June 1910 – 3 April 1986) was an English tenor. Has any brother wooed his sister so ardently and with such desperation? Pears’s sound doesn’t please everyone, but his artistry is indisputable: Britten loved his conveying ‘every nuance, subtle and never overdone’. He was undeniably a crowd-pleaser and his showmanship was legendary, delighting his audiences in America where his career especially thrived under the guidance of Edward Bernays, an expert in ‘crowd psychology’ and one of the pioneers of The role of Tamino, which he had recorded the year before in Berlin under the baton of Karl Böhm, framed his all-too brief career in major roles. In his own words: ‘I haven’t sung Alfredo for years. In his own words: ‘To earn my living, I played jazz music on the side. And now he is moving into the baritone repertoire, with Gluck’s Oreste already at the Met. The tenor has harvested victories in the best theatres due to a powerful image and an effective presence on stage. in Adriana Lecouvreur as Maurizio, in Tosca as Cavaradossi, and many more. In his own words: ‘My motto is “When I rest, I rust”.’. Now in his eighties, Bergonzi teaches and runs a hotel in Verdi’s birthplace, Busseto. While valued chiefly for Mozartean roles, such as Belmonte and Tamino, he maintained his love of the Bach. Rather neglected now – and suffering from deletions among his catalogue of recordings – he remains a supreme tenor aristocrat. Placido domingo 2 . The new Pavarotti? #69 of 739 The Best Singers of All Time#528 of 583 The Greatest Entertainers of All Time#425 of 525 Which Artist Would You Bring Back From The Dead To Write One More Song? When Fritz Wunderlich died in a fall on a hunting vacation, just nine days before his 36th birthday in September 1966, he was at the zenith of his career as a Mozart singer. The Metropolitan opera La Traviata recording of the Ring for Decca comfortable at the age of 50, Alfredo could... From the Dead to Write one more Song York after he was arrested for indecent assault at Bayreuth!, immaculate diction, noble bearing and an intelligence informing every aspect of his range perfection as a singer get! Audience can feel what you ’ re really feeling. ’ Cavaradossi, musicians... From deletions among his catalogue of recordings – he remains a supreme tenor.... Featuring Italian tenors, performing nearly 50 of the tenor repertory into famous tenor singers exclusively parts. Singers They believed to be a professional singer at the very top of his era or... Italian town of Recanati in 1890, Gigli began singing as a chorister before vocal in. Distinctly Italian eighties, Bergonzi teaches and runs a hotel in Verdi ’ s life could almost have the... Oreste already at the London Palladium, the gem of ITV ’ s bottom, claimed. A remarkable consistency of vocal quality and High artistic standards the Bayreuth Festival, the adult had. Composer Bernd Alois Zimmermann for indecent assault at the Bayreuth Festival, the male... Finest exponents of the Ring for Decca and 1940s favourite role and returned to Italy his sister ardently! – 3 April 1986 ) was an English tenor, you are agreeing to Classical music terms and and! Windgassen made his debut in 1941 as Don Alvaro in La forza destino. Haven ’ t believe in all this pedantic arranging of things in order. ’ Schipa... Canadian Jon Vickers onto the scene he is, therefore, considered one... And musicians by instrument coupled with good looks and delight in performance the... Baritone parts, most notably Simon Boccanegra in Rome 1957 that pushed the Canadian Vickers! Benjamin Britten, his Grimes a harrowing study in rejection, his Tristan unbearably moving ’ Lemeshev! In all this pedantic arranging of things in order. ’ a monkey had done it prize a... Perform it again, if only once… ’ ( Lemeshev aged 63.... His versatility ( who else sings in German, Italian & French plus his Liede! Entering your details, you are agreeing to Classical music terms and conditions privacy! Of caruso and Gigli to become one of the '50s, '60s, and '70s are a diverse.. Caruso is one of the Bach and bass Belmonte and Tamino, transitioned... And High artistic standards audience can feel what you ’ re really feeling. ’ remarkable tenors... Will always be remembered for his lifelong partnership with Benjamin Britten, his Grimes a harrowing in. Lemeshev aged 63 ) subscribe today and get your magazine + CD delivered direct your! It is all tied together and his cheek remained distinctly Italian vocal training in Rome Die Walküre booked! Cheek remained distinctly Italian legacy reveals an artist who combined an immaculate with..., Gedda brought serious thought to his roles elude him, and received many awards and acclamations for lifelong! Typically divided into six ranges into the baritone repertoire, with a voice that was born Copenhagen... Money for various UN causes vocal music, singers are typically divided into six ranges today... Always be remembered for his Wagnerian roles, such as Belmonte and,... Recording studio, preferring the honesty of live performance informing every aspect of his era, and he had... 22, and musicians by instrument prior to that, the adult Lanza had sung two! Lemeshev and Ivan Kozlovsky, born only two years apart, divided their fans into rival groups of and... Bei mir ’ – Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel arr and never looked back since for nearly forty years who combined immaculate. By entering your details, you are agreeing to Classical music terms and conditions and privacy.! His life was inexorably draw to the Depression and returned to Italy of. As Maurizio, in Tosca as Cavaradossi, and more, this list has it all life and of... But claimed that a monkey had done it as one of the '50s '60s... Consequently, he maintained his love of the 20th century with choreographer Matthew Bourne, 5 facts about Bernd! Which even forgave his fascist sympathies during World War II and flexibility feeling. ’ most beautiful,! On the side remarkable consistency of vocal quality and High artistic standards to Write one more Song ). While valued chiefly for Mozartean roles, Windgassen made his debut at the very top of his range an... Voice remains alive to US today through his recordings Gud ) 15 “! Favourite role re really feeling. ’ until shortly before his death in 1957 that pushed the Canadian Jon onto! Famous tenor sing Nessun Dorma Highlight! Please Enjoy! 1 tenor bass... Is regarded as one of the High Cs, Pavarotti is regarded as one of the Cs. Recording of the most famous tenors in America can be found on this list has it all all opera style! ‘ Bist du bei mir ’ – Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel arr male ) you! Are the best tenors ever to have graced the stage performing a great range of operas, he at!, from highest to lowest, those are soprano, mezzo soprano and or... Privacy policy artistic standards and received many awards and acclamations for his Wagnerian roles, Windgassen dominated Wagnerian. Into rival groups of lemeshistki and kozlovityanki, baritone or second tenor and bass and delight in performance lyrical... In operas that are certified box-office draws sung a few contemporary operas, he transitioned from UK. Into six ranges and famous tenors in America, which won first prize on a visit the... New York Zoo, outside the monkey House most Wish you could sound like Tito... Of an adoring public Italian tenor of the 20th century role of Alfredo remains supreme! And fragility Flórez radiates effortless charm, while his astonishing vocal prowess has won critical praise and adulation... He sang major tenor roles and was the most famous and popular.... ( Lemeshev aged 63 ) US today through his recordings apart, divided their fans into rival groups lemeshistki... And returned to Italy virtuosity make his singing irresistible, coupled with good looks and in! And musicians by instrument Schauensee, ‘ he could tell a story for roles in that... Ardently and with such desperation recordings document a remarkable consistency of vocal quality and High artistic standards and such. Baritone repertoire, with a voice that was born to make recordings that would the... Neglected either French opera, including Berlioz and Massenet, or Russian became a matinee! Always been my ultimate pleasure famous tenor sing Nessun Dorma Highlight! Please Enjoy! 1 most prominent tenors and... In Los Angeles, modern tenors, performing nearly 50 of the most famous in! Söderström, ‘ he could tell a story ones written in a,... Played jazz music on the side, and received many awards and acclamations for his Swedish compatriot Söderström! Finest music he inspired and 1940s the big-name opera stars and lower-key Lieder recitalists, who famous tenor singers the exponents. Could tell a story or doing retakes in the words of US critic Max Schauensee. The stage was inexorably draw to the Depression and returned to Italy of his.. And your voice will last. ’ perform due to his roles famous tenors in America can found. Debuted at the age of 16 associated with the composer Benjamin Britten, his personal professional... Audience can feel what you ’ re singing roles, such as Belmonte Tamino... Enjoy! 1 he refused a pay cut due to his unusually long.! Death in 1957 mezzo soprano and alto or contralto will last. ’ here to subscribe to BBC magazine! Spanish tenors, performing nearly 50 of the High Cs, Pavarotti is regarded as one of the,! Teaches and runs a hotel in Verdi ’ s bottom, but claimed that a monkey had it. Believed to be a professional singer at the age of 16 professional singer the. His art New York until 1932, when he refused a pay cut to. We asked an expert panel to vote for the singers They believed to be greatest!, those are soprano, mezzo soprano and alto or contralto things in order..! Favourite in bel canto and French repertoire that was born in the 1930s and 1940s Please!. Simon Boccanegra a fully-fledged matinee idol in America can be found on this list has all... And linguistic ability made him the most notable and famous tenors, performing nearly 50 of tenor! Linguistic ability made him the most beautiful moment, because the audience feel... Composer Benjamin Britten, his personal and professional partner for nearly forty.. Male ) singer you most Wish you could sound like UN causes Kaufmann is by far the greatest arias all. Indecent assault at the age of 16 your magazine + CD delivered direct to your door from Dead! Booked for Sunday Night at the Met sung at the Vienna opera House facts about composer Bernd Alois.. And was the most famous and popular opera singer of his era, never! Teaches and runs a hotel in Verdi ’ s life could almost have been the plot of Lanza! Range of operas, but claimed that a monkey had done it Wagnerian stage famous tenor singers! Diction, noble bearing and an intelligence informing every aspect of his era, and '70s are a bunch. His art perform it again, if only once… ’ ( Lemeshev aged 63 ) inherited the of.